Population Crisis in Russia
1 The Russian government is looking for ways to stop a severe population decline in the country, which has reportedly reached record levels. The demographic crisis, which began in 1993, has only deepened despite Russia's booming economy and high revenues from the sale of oil. Last year alone, the Russian population shrank by more than half a million people.
2 If the Russian population continues to decline at its current rate, in just 25 years the world's largest country will be inhabited by fewer people than currently live in Japan. Experts warn that the number of Russians -- currently 142 million -- could shrink by 20 million by the year 2030.
3 Russian men are especially at risk as their average life expectancy is now just 58 --16 years less than their counterparts in Western Europe, and a full 14 years less than Russian women. Bad lifestyle habits, like excessive smoking and drinking, coupled with accidents and suicides are the main killers.
4 Russia's Minister of Health and Social Development, Mikhail Zurabov, said Russians traditionally don't take care of their health and that creates a major problem for health officials. "Unfortunately, a healthy lifestyle is not the norm here. Alcoholism, smoking and many other things create a lot of serious problems. So in an effort to resolve this, we set ourselves what looked like a very simple task. We wanted to make sure that the citizens of the Russian Federation visit their doctors once every two years. But we can't even make people do simple things like that."
5 And although a record number of people in Russia were reportedly married last year, many are in no rush to start families, mostly for financial reasons. And even those who do so take a serious risk. According to recent figures, seven in every 10 Russian newborns suffer from health disorders and every 12th baby is born underweight.
6 If this demographic trend continues, experts say the Russian economy is set to lose $400 billion U.S. in the next two decades and the number of economically active Russians will shrink by 3.6 million people in the next five years.
1 Paragraph 2
2 Paragraph 3
3 Paragraph 4
4 Paragraph 6
A.Influence of population shrink on economy
B. Shrinking Russian population
C. Russian’s low birth rate
D. Life expectancy shortened and the reason
E. Russian’s carelessness about their health
F. Terrible situation by 2030
5 The Russian government is working to
6 The health officials want the citizens to
7 According to recent figures, 70% of the newborns
8 Experts warn, by 2030, the Russian population could
A.stop alcoholism and smoking
B. visit their doctors once every two years
C. prevent the population from shrinking
D. shrink to 122 million
E. suffer from health disorders
F. prevent the population from expanding
1 Voluntary learning in organized courses by mature men and women is called adult education. Such education is offered to make people able to enlarge and interpret their experience as adults. Adults may want to study something which they missed in earlier schooling, get new skills or job training, find out about new technological developments, seek better self-under-standing, or develop new talents and skills.
2 This kind of education may be in the form of self-study with proper guidance through the use of libraries, correspondence courses, or broadcasting. It may also be acquired collectively in schools and colleges, study groups, workshops, clubs, and professional associations.
3 Modern adult education for large numbers of people started in the 18th and 19th centuries with the rise of the Industrial Revolution. Great economic and social changes were taking place: people were moving from rural areas to cities, new types of work were being created in an expanding factory system. These and other factors produced a need for further education and re-education of adults.
4 The earliest programs of organized adult education arose in Great Britain in the 1790s,with the founding of an adult school in Nottingham and a mechanics' institute in Glasgow. The earliest adult education institution in the United States was founded by Benjamin Franklin and some friends in Philadelphia in 1727.
5 People recognize that continued learning is necessary for most forms of employment today. For example, parts of the adult population in many countries find it necessary to take part in retraining programs at work or even to learn completely new jobs. Adult education programs are springing up constantly to meet these and other needs.
23 Paragraph 2 __________
24 Paragraph.3 __________
25 Paragraph 4 __________
26 Paragraph 5 __________ A Necessity for developing adult education
B Early days of adult education
C Ways of receiving adult education
D Growth of adult education
E Institutions of adult education
F Definition of adult education
27 Some adults want to learn __________.
28 There are various forms of adult education, including __________.
29 Adult education has been made necessary __________.
30 The earliest organized adult education __________. A by social and economic changes
B guided self-study and correspondence courses
C by studying together with children
D what they did not manage to learn earlier
E dates hack to the eighteenth century
F mass production
28 B including提示后面要求填入的是前面说的成人教育的各种形式中的若干种。
29 A has been made necessary被动式的出现说明后面很可能会跟一个by短语，当然从意义上考虑不应该是C。
30 E date是动词，date back to的意思是“追溯到……”。